My interview with Red Ice Radio on Smart and SeXy

Listen to the whole thing here. You can get a copy of the book here. Additional reviews and excerpts can be found here. Here is a summary of the first hour:

Roderick joins us for an eye-opening conversation on the biological differences between men and women. After a lighthearted rumination on International Women’s Day, we dive into the main topic of the show. Roderick explains that most scientists are aware of racial and sexual differences, but choose to keep quiet for the sake of their careers. Next, we discuss anthropologist Melvin Konner’s assertion that maleness is a defect – an absurd claim, to be sure, which Roderick easily refutes. We then discuss the discrimination hypothesis. Roderick argues that it is biological differences, not discrimination, that results in different outcomes for men and women. The first hour covers much more, including male-female differences in intelligence, transgenderism, and homosexuality.

Share Button

Read The origin of species by Charles Darwin. Its great, its free, and it is nothing but alt-right

This book is well beyond copyright so you can read it for free online, including on this site which has both a typed and photocopied version on the same page. Also, please look at Jim’s excellent analysis of progressives re-writing history to downplay Darwin’s contribution of natural selection.

I know at least some of you already accept evolution. Some don’t being of certain Christian varieties. If you are religious and don’t believe in evolution, that is fine, it isn’t a requirement to be in the dark enlightenment (and I would prefer if arguments over it were saved for elsewhere, there are bigger fish to fry). However, accepting evolution makes understanding racial differences far easier.

With a background in biochemistry and lots of exposure to genetics it has never been that difficult for me to accept evolution and for a long time I never bothered to read it because “preaching to the choir” and all that. However, I was traveling for vacation a few years ago and walked into a book store to find a book for leisure reading when I stumbled across The origin of species. This was in a third world country where book selection was fairly eclectic. Often people would come in and exchange one book for another for a small fee, so someone must have brought the origin of species with them and traded it in. From experience I knew that both the content (especially the content) and the language difference was more than the locals were interested in. When I saw it I reflected on the issue and decided it was shameful that a biologist had not read this classic of scientific writing. (I bet PhD biologists as a group would be embarrassed by the results from a survey of how many of them actually read it) That some other random backpacker (probably European) had brought it with them to this obscure bookstore sort of gave me the boot in the butt to finally read it. So I set out to rectify the issue and purchased it for my leisure reading.

I will say that the content is just as relevant today as it was in 1859. His explanations of evolution are at least as good if not better than most of what you can find by modern writers despite their access to much better data. And I mean that. His descriptions and arguments are eminently approachable and understandable. They do not require any sort of “difficult” mathematics or complicated pictures of chromosome cross links to work through. Ya, it doesn’t have the benefit of genetic arguments, but that isn’t so important because in my experience even most college students in biology hate learning to really understand how genetics works (especially pre-meds. Don’t get me started on them. Ends justify the horribly inconvenient and bothersome means is their motto. Doctors aren’t nearly as great as many people think). Genetics can be difficult so I forgive them (my past classmates). Personally, genetics was one of my favorite classes. But you already knew I was weird as hell. Most people find it a real pain, and it can be a challenge. So in a way it is better that Darwin’s explanation of evolution doesn’t address modern biology. It makes it so much easier for a lay person to easily understand. If you want the hard details you can always find them elsewhere after reading Darwin’s clear, detailed, yet easy to understand account. But don’t expect the modern products of dysgenics to equal his elegance in writing.

However, it can’t be forgotten that Darwin was a badwhite. Here is some modern academic hack who only wishes he had a hundredth of the prestige of Darwin who lets us know Darwin would be right at home in neoreaction or the alt-right (as well as pretty much anyone else who lived in that more sensible time). Much to the everlasting shame of the originator of modern biology. lol.

he still divided humanity into distinct races according to differences in skin, eye or hair colour. He was also convinced that evolution was progressive, and that the white races—especially the Europeans—were evolutionarily more advanced than the black races, thus establishing race differences and a racial hierarchy. Darwin’s views on gender, too, were utterly conventional. He stated that the result of sexual selection is for men to be, “more courageous, pugnacious and energetic than woman [with] a more inventive genius. His brain is absolutely larger […] the formation of her skull is said to be intermediate between the child and the man” (Darwin 1871). [me: all of that is absolutely true btw] Although female choice explains sexual selection, it is the males who evolve in order to meet the chosen criteria of strength and power; such nineteenth century differentiation between the sexes was crucial in providing an alleged biological basis for the superiority of the male.

The whole article comes off as awkward because it is difficult to reconcile the idea of Darwin as the patron saint of (progressive) atheism with his clearly badwhite race realist beliefs. The fact is Darwin is the property of us, the badwhites who make up neoreaction and the alt-right. It is time we claimed the patron saint of atheism back for those who he actually most closely represents. Darwin is our hero, and we should remind those smug shitlibs of it every chance we get.

Share Button

Smart and SeXy

Smart and SeXy: The Evolutionary origins and biological underpinnings of cognitive differences between the sexes

The soft cover edition is available here. If you are on a budget you can also download the E-book. You can read the review here and the counter-currents review here.

This is probably the most heretical work I have ever or will ever put to writing personally, and probably one of the most heretical things from the perspective of progressives, feminists and any other member of the cathedral available anywhere. If you want a no-nonsense (i.e., no feminism) description of sex differences, then you will probably enjoy the information contained within. If you have questions about what exactly the gender differences in intelligence are, by what fairly exact biological mechanisms they come about, and what potential evolutionary narratives explain what we observe, then this is the book for you. After reading this book you will not only know the current patterns of sex differences in intelligence as shown by psychometric tests, but why and how the underlying biology explains the patterns we observe. At the heart of the differences is both genetic and hormonal elements which work in concert to generate what we see on an every day basis. It has taken years of work (since 2011) and hundreds of hours invested in reading hundreds of dry academic papers to compile the more than 300 sources included, but I did so you can have the evidence all in one place and explained in lay terms. And perhaps most importantly, to have the evidence for gender differences in intelligence without muddying the waters with the foul taint of feminism.

At the heart of The Red Pill and the Dark Enlightenment, when thinking about women, is a kernal which grows to support everything else; all the theory on game, marriage, etc. All higher level knowledge is dependent on it. The fundamental concept, or more accurately the anti-concept, is the rejection of Equality. Egalitarianism just isn’t so. Men and women aren’t equal and they aren’t the same. Knowing they are not equal allows correct understanding of the world and relationships from successful one night stands to successful marriages. The entirety of the manosphere and red pill are dependent on this insight. The Dark Enlightenment is also dependent on this insight, but they expand it to include not only sex differences but ethnic differences as well.

Having that level of dependence on that initial small kernal can present a problem when it isn’t sufficiently supported by evidence. Though there is this and that study which suggests in a minor way that gender equality is false, it is my view that such information as bolsters the rejection of egalitarianism when it comes to men and women is lacking sufficient centralization within the manosphere and neoreactionary community. There may be thousands of individual blog posts on the topic, but mostly each one only addresses a small part of the big picture and getting the entirety of the picture from these diffused writings can be more difficult than it needs to be. The known facts are sufficiently dispersed, unorganized, and lacking in coherence that it makes the kernal a source of vulnerability to criticism from the outside. It is, as it were, a chink in our armor that needs to be addressed.

You might think “there is plenty of evidence.” Sure, there is. But, in all honesty, do we (the community more than geneticists) REALLY understand the mechanism? How exactly, at the molecular level, does inequality between men and women come about? It is an important question, and until it is answered so rigorously and thoroughly that it can’t be denied this will always be a vulnerability in our position. This is why I wrote this book. It is meant to be the titanium plate to cover our chink in the armor. This book coheres the currently available data into a single place and a single narrative that is relatively easy to access and difficult to refute. Moreover, and unlike most feminist theories, it presents a testable hypothesis. The genetic explanation for sex differences in intelligence I propose is something that biologists and geneticists can design experiments to test in order to prove or disprove. By making this hypothesis known to the mainstream it forces scientists to directly test the hypothesis. At least that is my hope. Prior evidence suggests what the result of such testing will be.

Another point of this book is to attempt to put to rest once and for all the idea that disparities in achievement between men and women have a chiefly cultural origin; they don’t. The differences between men and women are almost exclusively due to biology. Once society accepts that women aren’t going to ever achieve at the same rate as men, we can stop wasting time and resources promoting women, via affirmative action, into positions and occupations they are not suited for; thus saving a lot of effort and wealth that is currently getting wasted. We might also be able to get the birthrate back up to a more stable level and thus avoid demographic problems.

Lastly, to a certain extent it is meant to be a handbook for those who might be faced with deliberation on the topic and who need to quickly reference one type of study or another to demonstrate biological reality. I have made herculean efforts to make this as readable as possible and I believe I have done a good job with this, but I have placed greater emphasis on including as much relevant information with proper citations to credible journals as possible. I wanted to give people knowledge of which studies they need to cite for their particular argument or discussion in one convenient and accessible place.

Who to thank?

I owe some twisted gratitude to progressive academics who through their push to shun and silence me in the name of political correctness gave me the motivation I needed to write this book contrary to their culturally Marxist fantasies. On multiple occasions I have been personally screwed over by people holding that ideology because I was so audacious as to merely mention I had read The Bell Curve and found the points within to be worth consideration. I didn’t even claim to agree with it, just that it is a hypothesis which needs to be taken seriously. That is, I was trying to be an objective biologist which is what scientists are supposed to do. What we are trained to do in fact. There were also several situations (probably more actually) where similar points, but about gender instead of race, met with pretty much the same result. Though it didn’t end up mattering very much, I was rejected from one graduate school because the chairman of the department found out I had a conversation with another professor about the bell curve (that professor actually brought the topic up!). That chairman then projected onto me an argument he had with his daughter’s teacher where apparently the teacher said or believed something sexist. The bell curve only briefly talks about gender differences (a couple pages out of 849)…  What the teacher actually did was never very clearly explained. This guy was mad, and it had absolutely nothing to do with anything I said to him, and I got a nice rejection because of it. So ya, I got really pissed, and not for the first or last time. A string of situations just like this created a great resentment within me, which I am sure is quite true of many other people given the swelling of the red pill, the dark enlightenment and other internet phenomena. These prig prog “scientists” were being complete a**%^$!s about hypotheses which cover perfectly valid scientific questions, and which as I show in the book have a great deal of empirical support. If it hadn’t been for my naive faith in actual objectivity in science, and the subsequent confrontation with the progressive faith that actually exists in science that resulted, I almost certainly never would have cared enough to do any of this work. I may never have cared enough to find neoreaction. Yet those things did happen, and now neoreaction, the alt-right and the red pill have something available that they can use against left-wing creationists, should they desire to use it.

Confrontations like these have made me, and many others, heavily motivated to discredit feminism because their beliefs don’t match the facts and they witch hunt anyone and everyone who points that out. The best way to do that is with hard data and if I didn’t do it, I feared nothing else so comprehensive would have come out for years. Or if it did, it would be hidden in esoteric academic texts in obscure journals and even then it would be dressed in evasive and overly-qualified language. In fact, I would argue that there has been more than enough data available to discredit feminism for a very long time but paywalls for publicly funded research (don’t get me started on that) and a wide dispersion of everything relevant with substantial credibility has made it difficult to pull everything together. There are many, many papers which touch on the subject but none that I have been able to locate that brings it all together. And they definitely don’t come close to calling out progressives. Most try to appease the leftist mobs. To do this right takes an outsider, and it takes someone with an audience. I have a marginal audience, but the biggest help with spreading the information lies with my ties to the other neoreactionaries who have a much larger following. Likely, it will spread to the manosphere blogs due to the porous nature of the divide between neoreaction and that community. Or not, only time will tell.

Blog vs. book

There are a number of bloggers who write for years then decide after the fact to convert their posts into a book. In my case, I actually went the other direction. I had already had this book in progress for several years prior to starting this blog in 2014. A number of posts on this blog (not all) were either direct offshoots from work on this project or were indirectly inspired by my work on the book and later integrated as they were highly relevant to points I was making. Some changed little, while others changed significantly in the move. For the most part, my posts are shortened versions of what appears in the book and have less evidence, citations, and topics as a result of needing to make them stand alone away from the rest of the text. However, the most important part of the book, in my mind, is the large numbers of studies collected together from a wide variety of fields and which constitute the evidence for the biological origins of sexual dimorphism in intelligence. This includes both IQ test studies and the impact of the genetics and hormones on the brain and intelligence. This evidence is exclusive to the book. If you would like a taste of the content of the book before deciding whether or not you want it, I recommend you take a look at the following posts:

Career women are dysgenic

How standardized testing undervalues men

stereotype threat and pseudo-scientists.

Share Button

Jumping the Shark: How Cultural Marxism is Set to Ruin GitHub

[title reference explanation]

Though I know how to do some basic coding, I would not call myself a programmer. As such, I have never spent any time in the open source community; a major subset of which is facilitated in their efforts by the company GitHub. GitHub apparently provides server hosting for various projects and a forum that volunteer programmers can use to collaborate. These programmers are working on these various projects that are intended to be freely available; both to use and to work on. They mostly interact with each other using screen names and without ever knowing the identity, race, or gender of their collaborators.

My impression as a disinterested outsider is that most of these people are sort of nerdy and have a special interest in coding for specific projects. Given what we know about IQ distributions between race and gender, it is safe to assume that most of the guys working on this project are either white or Asian male, and possibly Indian males as well. What we can also be sure of is that women are a small minority. Programming is intellectually rigorous work. Women don’t have the numbers at the high end of the IQ distribution to have large numbers of women with the right capabilities, and even those women smart enough to do it usually lack interest. We can also be relatively sure that blacks and Latinos are a minority as well, again merely because of what we know about racial IQ distributions. I would expect there to be more Latinos than blacks, however. I don’t know for sure what the demographics of github are, but the above is an educated guess based on what can be generalized from data on various groups of people. It also fits with the known demographics of various tech companies working on similar projects. In fact, the demographics of tech companies likely look “better” due to quotas. In an all volunteer project, chances are demographics are even less nationally representative than at most tech companies.

Knowing the above is relevant to understand just how obnoxious Github’s new code of conduct policy really is. It seems like it was intentionally designed to alienate the core demographic. So much so that I would say that if they implement it as written, normal white males will essentially be 2cnd class citizens within this online community. There are two sections I want to highlight, but I encourage you to read the whole thing at the previous link. Here is the first:

Our open source community prioritizes marginalized people’s safety over privileged people’s comfort. We will not act on complaints regarding:

  • ‘Reverse’ -isms, including ‘reverse racism,’ ‘reverse sexism,’ and ‘cisphobia’
  • Reasonable communication of boundaries, such as “leave me alone,” “go away,” or “I’m not discussing this with you”
  • Refusal to explain or debate social justice concepts
  • Communicating in a ‘tone’ you don’t find congenial
  • Criticizing racist, sexist, cissexist, or otherwise oppressive behavior or assumptions

Holy… This is like /r/tumblrinaction.

Bullet point one says that hating you because you are white, male, and/or straight is completely allowed. If some black lesbian comes in to disparage you and says you are horrible because of your race and gender (i.e., white and male), that is fine. If you talk back to her using the same language in return, you are in violation of the rule and will be punished.

Bullet point three suggests to me that when some SJW comes in to complain about something retarded, demands that they use some sort of logic to justify themselves will be ignored as part of official policy. If it is categorized as “social justice” it is sacred and is not up for debate.

Bullet point five seems to imply that people who try to defend themselves from unjustified accusations of racism et al, will have their complaints ignored. “If someone falsely accuses you of racism or sexism, T.S., you deserve it whitey.” Though I am not entirely sure about this last one, given the context that interpretation is most likely.

This is a level of entryism well above average in scope. It seems like it was just copied and pasted out of some victimology studies class textbook from Berkeley and pasted into this code of conduct. The level of absurdity in this becoming official policy here is more than I can fathom. This is straight out of 1984, or possibly Atlas Shrugged.

There are two things that really strike me about the above text. One, the main and largest demographic of this all-volunteer community (white men) is the one that these SJW entryists are going out of their way to define as second class citizens. They are telling them point blank that hating white men is allowed and they aren’t going to do anything about it when someone comments in this way. Even though these guys are freely giving away their time and effort, they still aren’t above being the officially sanctioned object of hatred. Two, if those same white men wanted to have some way to defend themselves from false SJW allegations, they are officially disallowed from doing so. They are banned from making SJWs defend their faith in “social justice,” logic need not apply. In addition, when they are accused of some -ism falsely, official channels will not address the slander in any way. They just have to take it. Sounds like a good community to be part of right?

My question is, how the hell did these radical cultural marxists get into a position to write this code of conduct in the first place? The demographic is mostly white male and there are a lot of programmers I have met who hate this kind of stuff; it is a common enough sentiment you wouldn’t have expected it to get this far. How did they allow these nuts to gain control of their community? Moreover, why did discussion about social justice, sexism, and racism become so important to a community which works with open-source programming projects? These things aren’t even tangentially related. Most of the people interacting do so only via the internet using screen names. You could be a purple teletubbykin Xer and no one would have a clue about it. I mean, there isn’t a better situation for race and gender blindness possible. Blacks and women could contribute all they want and would only be judged by the quality of their code.

Though I am not sure what instigated this change in policy, I think the last sentence suggests one possibility. Women and blacks probably were spotted because they contributed crappy code purely as a result of having lower IQs than their collaborators on average. No one knew they were black or female or whatever, but people spotted shitty code and called them out on it; quite harshly too as is common when men interact with each other. Autist programmers are probably at another level entirely as well. No racism or sexism would have been intended (the criticizer had no way to know these attributes anyway). With women and blacks more consistently contributing crap code compared to other groups there would be a disparate impact on who was on the receiving end of flaming. That disparate impact would have been totally justified, however, because crappy code probably makes everyone else’s work harder. Thus, it would be better for the community as a whole if those not up to snuff just left. Blacks and women would leave more, but fewer of them are legitimately good enough. They should leave until they gain enough ability to be a better contributor, if they even can. Meritocracy can’t have protected classes by definition.

I will hazard a guess and say that this was probably the result of feminists more than blacks or other minorities. Feminists are more likely to be overly sensitive to criticism than the black male programmer. White female feminists are smarter than blacks as well and so are more likely to have sufficient numbers trying to invade this community; thus gaining a measure of success. In addition, the feminists wouldn’t hesitate to add all the stuff about race while feminizing the other rules even if race didn’t come up very often.

Essentially what happened, by my guess, is that a group of feminists are trying to legislate out one of the most important rules of the internet. That is, there are no girls on the internet. Probably the best way to get this explained is to quote the original 4chan comment which defined the modern version of the rule. Sorry if it is a bit crude:

If I can pontificate a bit, for your edification, one of the rules of the internet is “there are no girls on the internet.” This rule does not mean what you think it means.

In real life, people like you for being a girl. They want to fuck you, so they pay attention to you and they pretend what you have to say is interesting, or that you are smart or clever. On the Internet, we don’t have the chance to fuck you. This means the advantage of being a “girl” does not exist. You don’t get a bonus to conversation just because I’d like to put my cock in you.

When you make a post like, “hurr durr, I’m a girl” you are begging for attention. The only reason to post it is because you want your girl-advantage back, because you are too vapid and too stupid to do or say anything interesting without it. You are forgetting the rules, there are no girls on the internet.

The one exception to this rule, the one way you can get your “girlness” back on the internet, is to post your tits. This is, and should be, degrading for you, and admission that the only interesting thing about you is your naked body.

tl;dr: tits or GET THE FUCK OUT

I will craft some fiction which I would guess has some resemblance to the events which led to these new rules. What happened was that female programmers who in real life are used to being held to lower standards compared to their male counterparts must have joined GitHub. These women as a group aren’t as good as men and are not criticized for this when people address their work in person. Maybe its because male coworkers want to fuck them or maybe its because her employer fears lawsuits and just needs a vagina on the programmer payroll regardless of how much she sucks. Whatever the reason, these women met with a harsh climate when they contributed junk code using an anonymized account. They were being held to the same standards as men for the first time in their lives and they didn’t like it. So, they immediately violated the internet rule of “there are no girls on the internet.” They stated they were female, despite that having no bearing on whether the code was good or not, to try to get their female advantage back. A number of programmers rightly condemned this and told them to hit the road with that nonsense. Some might have used especially harsh language, but the message was clear. Code well or leave. Somehow, feminazis had managed to gain power within the corporate structure of GitHub, or the males there were complete pussies, or both. They saw these interactions, and being feminists and cucks, created these rules so that when people use the race or sex card to defend their low quality work, good programmers are put into a corner where they can’t defend themselves or have any mechanism to reject poor code from the coddled classes. It was mainly about m’lady, but being good leftists they added in several other contenders for the victim Olympics. If someone has a better theory, please share.

In essence, the same pathetic “victims” who we are all sick of hearing complain found that in a pure, unadulterated meritocracy they were clearly found to be less skilled. Their initial attempts to use the same -ism crutch they use in real life to excuse their incompetence didn’t work because no one could tell what kind of otherkin they were just by a screen name before they called them out. Friends of these losers in high places thus crafted these rules to make sure that their crutch would work. Good bye GitHub, I only knew you for a brief time, but your cultural Marxism infestation is so severe that nothing can be done. It will be better just to put you down like old yeller. Good bye meritocracy, hello community destruction.

Moving on to the next section I want to quote:

We encourage everyone to participate and are committed to building a community for all. Although we will fail at times, we seek to treat everyone both as fairly and equally as possible. Whenever a participant has made a mistake, we expect them to take responsibility for it. If someone has been harmed or offended, it is our responsibility to listen carefully and respectfully, and do our best to right the wrong.

Although this list cannot be exhaustive, we explicitly honor diversity in age, gender, gender identity or expression, culture, ethnicity, language, national origin, political beliefs, profession, race, religion, sexual orientation, socioeconomic status, and technical ability. We will not tolerate discrimination based on any of the protected characteristics above, including participants with disabilities.

This section is one of the reasons I think it was feminists rather than minorities generally. The concern about feelings and being offended is a clear sign that some female busy body wrote this or at least demanded the language highlight feelings.

We also see the whole rainbow of protected classes. Its almost funny. Most of these things would never come up if only actual programmers doing programming work were part of the community. They would be focusing on working rather all this random identity politics crap. It is the invading SJWs which prioritize this nonsense and probably barely do any coding. It is especially absurd in cases like this where the work has literally no connection to the SJW agenda. I mean seriously, open source software does not have anything to do with identity politics. It is also quite easy to never reveal your weird sexual fetishes or other hangups to anyone on there while working on a project.

Culture and political beliefs are also on the list of protected classes, but you can bet only progressive culture and political beliefs will be protected in practice. Anything not progressive is “racist,” so its banned by default.

Perhaps funniest is they don’t allow discrimination based on technical ability. Lol, what? YOU GUYS ARE PROGRAMMERS WORKING ON TECHNICAL PROJECTS!! YOU CAN’T TELL SOMEONE WHO CAN’T CODE NOT TO SCREW UP YOUR PROJECT? WTF!!11!! Unbelievable. Again, this is extremely feminine perspective. Everyone just get along, girls need special treatment even if they aren’t as good. Be nice to your sister.

All I can say for the guys who were legitimately trying to do work they were passionate about on this platform is I am sorry. SJW entryists have invaded your hobby and are doing everything they can to destroy it. It looks like they will succeed as well. The good news is that because all of this is open source, you should be able to migrate to a different platform pretty easily. At least, you can copy all of the relevant code and move it without any trouble. You could even start up your own competitor which advertises that it doesn’t have SJW cancer. I am sure that would actually be quite attractive to a lot of people. However, you have to remember that the downfall of GitHub was because it was excessively open and welcoming. You let the crazies in and you didn’t get rid of them when you discovered they were crazy. You possibly feared being called “far-right” and capitulated like a cuckservative. This was your mistake.

Open communities are doomed to this fate. It has happened again and again. It happens every single time without fail. It doesn’t matter how apolitical your community is, without a proper immune system radical leftists will invade and change the priorities to social justice and other fantasies. The original work of the community or business will be subjugated to the progressive religion. By direct decree, you will not even be allowed to criticize the progressive social justice. Social justice doesn’t need to make sense, it just has to be sacred. Being sacred, no one is allowed to criticize it. Not even apolitical programmers just trying to work on their apolitical hobby in peace.

For the formers of new communities, including GitHub’s replacement, finding out your choices are limited is difficult, but it should also give you sterner resolve to prevent your next community from being taken over by radical cultural marxists. For one thing, it should make you accept how important exclusivity is and keep you determined to immediately eject people who want to destroy your painstakingly created community by making it another arm of progressivism. If you want your new GitHub to stay pure and apolitical, you will need to prepare yourself for your new role as inquisitor.


Thanks for the comments; especially those showing entryists at github, and that at least some parts of the community are adopting the policy.

See also “We will not act” (turns out that I was right and this was written by a white female feminist)

Share Button

Hybridization Theory?

I recently became aware of a hybridization theory of human origins. The science news website has had two different articles on this topic (see here and here). The proponent of this theory is Dr. Gene McCarthy, a geneticist trained at the University of Georgia. In short, McCarthy hypothesizes that humans resulted from a hybridization event between a chimp-like human ancestor and a pig-like ancestor with subsequent back-crosses to the chimp-like ancestor. That is, once the initial small number of hybridizations occurred, the hybrids only paired with the chimp-like ancestor subsequently. Therefore, according to this theory, humans would be mostly primate with a smattering of pig genes interspersed through the genome. This small band of hybrids would then have reproduced prodigiously and thus the human species formed.

Though the idea sounds completely insane, McCarthy offers a fair amount of morphological evidence which I am not especially qualified to evaluate. You can look at this on his site, the first link above.  He also shows various examples of crosses known to occur today which produce fertile female hybrids; albeit with reduced fertility compared to both parent species. In any event, morphological evidence in my opinion can at best compel a more detailed look at genetic data to verify, or more probably refute, the theory. It is quite possible that the morphological similarities are merely a case of convergent evolution rather than evidence of common ancestry.

However, it is known that the human species has very little genetic diversity relative to other species. It is hypothesized that early in the history of the human species there was a very constrictive bottleneck. One of the pieces of evidence used for this bottleneck is the one fewer chromosomes humans have relative to other great apes. It is much easier for a change of this sort to become fixed in a population when that population is very small. Notably, the pig genome also has fewer chromosomes and a hybridization event might explain the reduction in number of chromosomes. The chromosome number is much farther away from pigs and closer to primates, but this would be consistent with the idea that back-crosses occurred exclusively with primates. Could it be that the bottleneck, with its resultant low genetic diversity and reduction in chromosome number, is explained by a very isolated hybridization event among a small group of chimp-like ancestors? These ancestors being the founding population of all humans?

Though hybridization does happen on occasion, it is mostly only successful with plants. Natural hybridization was very important in the development of cultivated wheat for example. (See here and here and here and here). Some wheat species amazingly tolerate hexaploidy successfully. Another good case of hybrid crosses important for agriculture are the citrus fruits; many of which resulted from hybridizations. The grapefruit, for example, resulted from the hybridization of a blood orange (a variety of sweet orange) and a pomelo. I only know of one successful speciation event among animals that resulted from hybridization, and that was between two closely related dolphin species. McCarthy himself claims that hybridization of closely related species of this sort is common among birds in his book “Handbook of avian hybrids of the world,” which is apparently regarded as the preeminent publication on the subject. McCarthy also provides a list of purported hybrid examples documented in the last 150 years or so. Admittedly, a number of these examples aren’t very believable or persuasive, but I will let you be the judge of that yourself. Some are obviously true though; like mules and zeedonks. (Zeedonk is an awesome name BTW)

So we know for a fact that closely related species of plants and animals can hybridize, and that they are even sometimes fertile. That is fine, but an ape and a pig are much more distantly related. Could a successful speciation event occur from such a pairing? Intuition says no, but it is better to let the evidence decide.

There is one way to be absolutely sure it did not happen, and that is through genetic comparisons. One thing that was lacking in McCarthy’s descriptions was any sort of genetic evidence, which immediately made me suspicious. Though highly incredulous, I am not closed-minded and so I dutifully wanted to check genetic studies myself to see if the theory could be positively refuted. Surely there must be some genetic evidence which could rule out this idea conclusively.

So what do we know about human and pig genome comparisons? The domestic pig genome has been sequenced, and all the studies point to it being a better model organism for Human diseases than the mouse. Quoting the author’s of one study:

“In total, we found 112 positions where the porcine protein has the same amino acid that is implicated in a disease in humans,”

In another study, the geneticists were more direct:

“Physical clone maps have underpinned large-scale genomic sequencing and enabled focused cloning efforts for many genomes. Comparative genetic maps indicate that there is more structural similarity between pig and human than, for example, mouse and human.”

Well that is surprising. Pigs make better genetic models for human diseases than rodents? Apparently there is 84% homology between the pig and human genome and critically for medical research, many of the genes implicated in human disease possess the same mutations in pigs.

At first you might not think it is weird that a pig would be a better model than a mouse, but it is actually really strange. If you look at a taxonomic tree of mammals, rodentia (mouse and rat) is very closely related to primates. This is a relatively recent split. Pigs, in the superorder Laurasiatheria and order Artiodactyla, are much farther away. In other words, the last common ancestor of pigs and humans should be much more ancient than the last common ancestor of humans and mice. Since the split is much more ancient, you would expect there to be much more dissimilarity between humans and pigs relative to humans and mice. Therefore, it makes little sense that a pig should be a better model organism at the genetic level for human diseases than the mouse. Curious indeed.

mammal evolution tree


The Platypus Example

Ok, so there isn’t much on pig and human comparisons, but what is available doesn’t seem to contradict the hybridization theory and may even modestly support it. McCarthy also uses the platypus as an example of an even more distant hybridization. Clearly, this is much more distant than primates and pigs. If hybridization could be established as the correct origin of the platypus, then it reduces the implausibility in the human hybridization theory. However, even if the platypus is a hybrid that does not mean humans are. It merely makes speciation as a result of hybridization of distant species plausible.

Certainly a platypus looks like the offspring of a beaver that had sex with a duck. They also share other less obvious characteristics with both ducks and mammals as well. For example, they lay eggs like ducks and produce milk like mammals (without nipples). You can watch the documentary on the platypus below to get an idea of what it looks like, if you don’t know already.

One might object that platypus fossils have been found that are incredibly old; at least 120 million years old. You might expect that there were no ducks around that long ago. However, duck-like birds have been found as old as 110 million years old. That isn’t quite overlapping, but it suggests that it is at least possible that the relevant animals did in fact exist side by side during the necessary time frame. Considering how developed those duck-like birds are, it is possible that duck-like birds had been around for awhile at that point. Who knows? We can’t be certain until a relevant fossil is found that happens to be old enough.

There is also the problem of the mating. Would a duck actually try to have sex with a beaver or vice-versa? Anyone who has been to a duck pond regularly knows how aggressively male ducks act towards females during mating season. I have personally seen a male duck fly 20 yards across a pond at a female in the water, bite her neck, and force her completely under the water, head and all, as he finishes his business. The male duck rapes her in human parlance. On another occasion a male duck was doing something similar on land and a woman was upset enough that she actually chased him away and loudly chastised him. lol. All of this may be an example of sexism in nature. When do you think we will start legislating against duck rape culture? Anyway, this pattern of behavior has been present in water fowl for so long that female ducks have actually evolved vaginal pathways with dead ends which are meant to divert the semen of unwanted males. The male duck’s penis itself shoots out rapidly like a projectile during this process in an effort to navigate the female’s maze-like vagina. It isn’t much of a stretch that a male duck in the midst of mating frenzy might mistake any animal that happens to be splashing about in the water for a female duck and engage in his normal rape mating behavior on the unfortunate creature. Therefore, it isn’t hard to imagine this may happen from time to time and thus create the opportunity for a hybridization event. Duck-beaver matings are thus not the least plausible of things I have ever heard of. The Annunaki are much harder to believe in, for example.

[EDIT: Seals attempt to mate with penguins. While not proof of hybridization, it does show that such inter-species matings of comparable distance to that of platypus ancestors do in fact occur]

Even though it is plausible that an ancient male duck-like bird might try to rape an ancient otter or beaver-like mammal doesn’t mean hybridization might occur, though. There are much more significant barriers than mere mating behavior. The hybrid must develop, be born, and be capable itself of producing offspring. How can we know if a platypus actually is a hybrid or just a particularly strange mammal that resulted from a traditional understanding of evolution?

To answer this question, we need to know about the genetics of the platypus. If the platypus has bird ancestry, then it must have bird genetics. In writing my soon to be released book on cognitive differences between the sexes, I spent a large amount of time researching the X chromosome; including looking at studies which deal with its evolution. Unsurprisingly, the platypus X (among other things) is of special interest to evolutionary geneticists because it is supposed to be a missing link of sorts. The state of the platypus sex chromosomes is supposed to be informative on general mammalian sex chromosome evolution because scientists currently think early mammals must have resembled the platypus. I don’t really dwell on this in the book, but I did learn a few things about the platypus X. I quote this study [emphasis mine]:

“Little is known about the gene content of the 10 platypus sex chromosomes, but the few available data are extremely striking. Early comparative mapping using radioactive in situ hybridization with heterologous probes suggested that X1, located at one end of the chain, shared homology with the ancient part of the mammalian X (Watson et al. 1990; Wilcox et al. 1996; Mitchell et al. 1998; but see also Waters et al. 2005). At the other end of the chain, fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) of a large insert BAC-clone showed that X5 contained the Z-borne putative bird sex-determination gene DMRT1 (Grützner et al. 2004; El-Mogharbel et al. 2007). This suggested that the monotreme meiotic chain has homology with the therian XY system at one end and to the bird ZW system at the other, and represents an evolutionary link between two systems that were previously thought to have evolved independently

“We have also tested the hypotheses that platypus sex chromosomes share homology with both the mammal XY and the bird ZW systems. In complete contradiction to early data, we find that the 10 sex chromosomes of platypus share no homology with the ancestral therian X chromosome, which is homologous to platypus chromosome 6. Instead, we find that regions homologous to the chicken Z are scattered throughout the chain, principally on X5 and X3.”

Ok, so homology is shared between bird sex chromosomes and platypus sex chromosomes and the platypus even has a bird sex determination gene. Some studies say that there is homology to the therian X, and others don’t. The bird connection is undeniable though. Fair enough, both probably derived from common ancestor chromosomes through the normal mechanisms of evolution. But wait:

“The absence of homology between the bird Z chromosome and the snake and turtle Z sex chromosomes suggests that the origin of the sex chromosomes and the causative genes of sex determination are different between birds and reptiles.”

If the X did directly evolve from an ancestral Z chromosome which is the same ancestor of the modern bird sex chromosomes, how is it that the bird Z evolved after birds split from reptiles, which would itself have occurred after mammals had split from reptiles? Why do the platypus sex chromosomes share NO homology with the chromosome that eventually became the X in all other mammals? Why would all other mammals switch from a perfectly functional sex chromosome system and start using chromosome 6 for sex determination instead? As you can see, that the platypus basically has a morphed bird sex determination system is extremely strange.

amoniote evo jp


Proto-mammals (synapsids) split from reptiles (sauropsids) at a very ancient date (sometime in the Permian or Carboniferous period 250-340 million years ago). After that, in the late Permian or early Triassic, the archosaurs (which produced dinosaurs, some of which became birds) split from the parareptillia (which produced snakes). Where turtles belong relative to snakes and birds is unclear, but molecular evidence strongly suggests they are diapsids, which firmly makes them more related to birds than mammals.

For reptiles and birds that do have sex chromosomes, the evidence is clear that they evolved independently and are unrelated to each other. However, many reptiles do not have sex chromosome determination; they often use temperature or other mechanisms. Notably crocodiles use temperature for sex determination and so have no sex chromosomes at all. Crocodiles without sex determination chromosomes are more closely related to birds than snakes and turtles with sex chromosome determination.  In other words, the bird Z evolved relatively long after the split not only from our mammalian ancestors, but even long after the split of birds from other more closely related reptiles. So how can a platypus share homology with birds, and not mammals, in the sex chromosomes if bird sex chromosomes evolved long after a split with mammals? Is the large body of evidence which led scientists to expect platypus sex determination systems to be completely independent of birds, since the platypus is classified as a mammal, really wrong? Why are scientists so ready to overturn everything they know about the evolution of reptile, bird, and mammal sex chromosomes (among other things) for what is seemingly a unique aberration? The idea that bird sex chromosomes evolved after the split from reptiles has not really been overturned to my knowledge. That is unless you take platypus sex chromosomes at face value, but that just creates a whole new batch of questions regarding evolution of the Z. In the case of the platypus, hybridization theory is actually more consistent with the previous scientific consensus than the retrofitted accommodation of the unique platypus sex chromosomes in the evolution of the therian X. Hybridization theory is more parsimonious because as a unique exception to the rule it does not require upending previous thinking on evolution; at least with respect to the evolution of the therian X chromosome.

Once you eliminate the impossible, whatever remains, no matter how improbable, must be the truth.

~Sir Arthur Conan Doyle

If hybridization theory is true, though, then any notion that monotreme genomes tell us much about the state of early mammals must be completely disregarded. Or at least, we would have to verify if any particular gene is of mammalian or avian origin before deciding which lineage it is informative of. Also, the somewhat arrogant idea that monotremes are somehow “primitive” would also have to be thrown out. Birds lay eggs and have bills too, that does not make them evolutionarily “primitive.”

Another thing that is pretty weird about platypus sex determination is that they have a bunch of separate X and Y chromosomes. That is pretty different from both mammals and birds, and pretty much any other sex determination system I have heard of. Perhaps it is actually a snapshot of the early evolution of the bird Z chromosomes? In any event, the many sex chromosomes in the platypus does remind me of one thing though, and that is the polyploidy that is common among plant hybrids. Plants tend to be much more tolerant of polyploidy than animals, and can speciate by having complete genomes from both parent species. Just because plants are more tolerant, does not necessarily mean it is impossible in animals. Are platypuses polyploid with respect to their sex chromosomes because of a hybridization event? Strange stuff.

The end result of my research into hybridization is that most of the information pertaining to the genetics of hybridization seems to make the theory plausible, though certainly not proven. A strikingly unexpected finding on my part. If it turns out to be true that a pig-monkey hybrid event did take place at the origin of the human species, that would be a pretty big collective hit to our ego. Probably more shocking than Darwin’s original suggestion that man evolved from apes. Ironically, it would also make the south park parody of evolution/creationists factually correct after a fashion. Poe’s law would reach inception levels. A parody which everyone thought was crap actually turning out to be correct would be ironic beyond compare.

On that note, perhaps Africa is at the forefront of human evolution after all. Jokes aside, that bestiality still occurs at all today in places like Africa, Wales, and New Zealand suggests that attempts are made at inter-species mating at a common enough rate that successful hybridization events in animals might actually be possible even if they are only very rare. By “successful” I mean that fertile offspring are produced. The fact that pretty much all the ancient moral code sages felt bestiality was a common enough problem that it had to be explicitly condemned says a lot about how many of our brothers tend to be wayward. Is there any reason to think pre-human ancestors were any less wayward? I wouldn’t expect bestiality to make much of an impact on the moral conscience of pigs either. Bestiality being a common enough problem in the past suggests hybridization may be a key, if rare, feature of evolution.

In closing, I leave you with this astute observation my Aunt once made. It originally came up during a discussion about the improbable pregnancies of obese women, but it seems like it might be relevant for this situation as well.

For every pig, there is a pig fucker.

Some more hybrid pig pictures:

bottom pig 1

Disturbed Asian Girl:

bottom pig 2 disturbed chinese girl

Share Button

How Standardized Testing Undervalues Men

IQ testing and research has been around for over 100 years. Though it is often a controversial issue, the fact remains that more than any other psychological trait studied, IQ scores contain a remarkable amount of predictive power with regards to life-time outcomes. One of the most surprising aspects of intelligence that early researchers encountered was that performance on a wide variety of divergent tasks was positively correlated. In other words, if you did well on one type of task, it was very likely you would do well on any task you were given including ones that were nothing like the original subject. This is the origin of the term g or general intelligence. By determining a person’s g on a few tasks, you can predict how they will perform on a variety of others and remarkably how well they would do in terms of lifetime achievement. This finding has withstood 100 years of robust research and a greater amount of heavy criticism, thanks to political correctness, than most other scientific findings.1, 2

Though there is only one g, there are also sub-g abilities that are both positively correlated to each other and with g (meaning their existence does not disprove a general intelligence factor). However, these sub-g abilities do not perfectly correlate with each other, which leaves some room for people with similar IQs to possess individualized intellectual profiles. These sub-g abilities can be divided into verbal reasoning, numerical reasoning, and spatial/mechanical reasoning. Along these dimensions a large sex differentiated pattern appears which has been well documented since the beginning of IQ tests. Women tend to outperform men on tests of verbal reasoning while men have an advantage in both numerical and spatial reasoning.3,5

Since this is an article about how standardized tests currently undervalue men, I will focus on the male cognitive profile. A recent study that quantified male advantages found that older adolescent men out-performed women on average by 6 IQ points on items involving numerical reasoning and 13 IQ points on items involving mechanical reasoning.  This is about a half standard deviation and a full standard deviation respectively.4 A full standard deviation advantage on spatial reasoning tasks is a LOT and goes a very long way in explaining the dearth of women in STEM and the low numbers of female electricians or mechanics. Having a high spatial reasoning has been shown to be essential to the pursuit of the inorganic sciences among the smartest people.6,7  It should also be noted that brain development continues into the twenties which means that it is very possible that these numbers underestimate the extent of the gender gap in adulthood.

Considering the importance of spatial ability to scientific endeavors and success, it is curious that these types of tasks are conspicuously absent from aptitude tests which are supposed to identify people qualified for STEM; tests including the SAT and the GRE.6,7 In both tests, there is a verbal component, a numerical component, and a writing component. The writing component is really just a more subjective way to measure verbal aptitude. One study7 comments on the current state of the GRE (the SAT shows the exact same pattern) thusly:

Based on approximately 2.5 million GRE test takers assessed in 2002–2005, 30% scored P700 (out of a top possible score of 800) on GRE-Q (ETS data: all examinees tested between 1 July 2002 and 30 June 2005, N GRE-V = 1,245,878, N GRE-Q = 1,245,182). The GRE-Verbal was not compromised by ceiling effects, with only 3% scoring P700. Indeed, the GRE-Q mean of 591, with a standard deviation of 148, reveals that the mean is 1.4 standard deviations from the GRE-Q ceiling; whereas the GRE-V mean of 467, with a standard deviation of 118, places this mean at 2.8 standard deviations from the GRE-V ceiling (twice the distance). This results in 10 times as many scores P700 for GRE-Q than GRE-V! Of the two most critical specific abilities for commitment to and excellence in STEM educational–occupational tracks, selection criteria for advanced education and training in the US are severely compromised by ceiling effects for one (mathematical reasoning) while the other (spatial ability) is totally neglected.

What this means is that a large range of ability in numerical reasoning is clustered together in the high range of the GRE quantitative test and is thus preventing the possibility to distinguish high ability students from exceptionally high ability students. By making the top score of the test (the ceiling) low, you can ensure that the very able and exceptionally able have roughly the same score. Individuals who excel in spatial ability are unidentified because that method of mental reasoning is completely ignored. Meanwhile, the verbal ability test is designed such that exceptional talent can readily distinguish itself thanks to a much larger difficulty ceiling. Not only that, but verbal is double weighted by a second exercise which also exclusively focuses on verbal reasoning. (Un)coincidentally, this is exactly how you would design tests if you wanted to obfuscate gender differences that showed men doing better than women. On the GRE-Q, super-exceptional men get the same scores as merely able women because they can’t demonstrate their greater talent with a higher score than the low maximum.  By making numerical tests ineffectual at the upper ranges of ability and ignoring spatial reasoning entirely, these tests ignore two essential factors in creativity and intelligence which are relevant for any field, but especially relevant for STEM. The testing of abilities which women have a sex advantage in are remarkably over-emphasized and makes men and women appear more intellectually equal than they really are. Especially disconcerting is that this test design guarantees that there are a relatively large number of men at both the mean and at the high levels of ability who are having their talent squandered. They are not being admitted to the quality of schools they should be. In public school, they are not being given the type of hands on education that is befitting of their talent in spatial and mechanical reasoning even though it is the men with this particular ability who are most important to our technological development.6,7

There is little doubt in my mind that these tests are purposefully designed this way for reasons of political correctness and cultural marxism  (IE “The Cathedral“). I find it hard to believe that College Board, the company that designs and administers the SAT and GRE, does not understand what effect this kind of test structure has on the resultant scores. They are a professional testing company whose bread and butter is understanding how IQ tests work and designing effective ones. There is simply no way they could miss this glaring problem. However, I don’t think I can necessarily blame them for how they designed the test. They are acting rationally to avoid (false) accusations of sexism and bias that would surely result if the tests openly demonstrated the intellectual superiority males have over females in mathematics and mechanics. The problem is with our repressive and feminist dominated culture which can’t bring itself to admit that men have innate cognitive advantages over women; especially not if the level of male advantage is so large and substantial that it requires surveying an extremely gerrymandered map of cognitive talents to hide. That equalizing men and women in test scores requires two different tests of verbal intelligence (one of which is conveniently subjective), a poorly designed quantitative test, and ignoring an entire dimension of mental reasoning says a lot about just how large the gap between men and women is. If you don’t want to take my word that these tests are geared to emphasize the talents of women at the expense of the talents of men, maybe you will believe the American Psychological Association (emphasis mine):

“Most standard tests of intelligence have been constructed so that there are no overall score differences between females and males”3


A high school student with experience with AP tests (also designed and administered by college board) indicates that the same pattern described above is true for AP calculus vs. AP English tests. see the /r/darkenlightenment comment.

All of the studies below should be accessible from if you search the title or DOI. If you can’t find it there, then please make a request on the subreddit /r/scholar

  1. Just one g: consistent results from three test batteries Wendy Johnson*, Thomas J. Bouchard Jr., Robert F. Krueger, Matt McGue, Irving I. Gottesman Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota—Twin Cities, 75 East River Road, Minneapolis, MN 55455, USA Received 8 April 2003; received in revised form 27 May 2003; accepted 15 June 2003
  2. The g facto: the science of mental testing. [book length PDF] Arthur Jensen 1998
  3. Intelligence: knowns and unknowns. American Psychological Association.
  4.  Sex differences on g and non- g  intellectual performance reveal potentialsources of STEM discrepancies Gina C. Lemos, Francisco J. Abad, Leandro S. Almeida, Roberto Colom
  5. Sex differences in mental abilities: g masks the dimensions on which they lie Wendy Johnson, Thomas J. Bouchard Jr. University of Minnisota. 2006
  6. Kell, H. J., & Lubinski, D.  (2013).  Spatial ability: A neglected talent in educational and occupational settings.Roeper Review, 35, 219-230.
  7. Spatial Ability and STEM: A sleeping giant for talent identification and development. David Lubinski. Department of Psychology and Human Development. Vanderbilt University.


Share Button

Sexism in Nature: The Red Velvet Ant

As we all know mother nature is extremely sexist since sexism is extraordinarily abundant throughout her kingdom. For some unfathomable reason she sees fit, in her infinite patriarchal fascism, to continually set up systems of oppression in the sexual dynamics of most species. Unsurprisingly, in most cases it is the unfortunate female who gets the short end of the stick. It is about time some enterprising bloggers took up the cause of shaming evolution and natural selection into being more fair toward females of every species. Human women have through hard effort and completely rational means won liberation from their oppressors. In order to responsibly enjoy their new found privilege, feminists must work just as tirelessly to bring liberation from structural oppression to their non-human sisters.

I vote that the first creature we should work to emancipate from sexist oppression be the red velvet ant. You can see her being sexually abused by the human misogynist in the following video.  Her screams are just heart-wrenching. As is too often the case, the resident feminist knocking on the door and running her mouth was completely ineffectual at stopping the rape culture in action.

The red velvet ant makes its way in the world by laying its egg on the larva of the  giant cicada wasp. In another example of a misnomer, this wasp is also known as the cicada hawk.  Honestly, cicada hawk does sound better.

Cicada Hawk

The cicada hawk digs deep burrows which contain several chambers; each for one larvae. Into these chambers it drags freshly caught cicadas for each of the larvae to eat as it grows.



The female red velvet ant must crawl down the burrow to reach the larvae and lay its eggs, which in turn kill/eat the cicada hawk larvae and the cicada.

All of the above demonstrates an extreme amount of wasp racism and xenophobia to be sure, and of course we are also SOOOO upset about that too! Just one more thing that demonstrates that mother nature and her creatures are anarcho-fascist, capitalist pigs.  Or rather, they obviously would be if bugs used money. Oppression is oppression, but lets keep it real. As feminists what we really care about is women and women only. Lets forget about all this scientastic crap since that is making our heads hurt and move onto the emotional high we get from that juicy indignation against sexism. Specifically, the red velvet ant male is allowed to grow wings and is thus able to soar through the skies happy and free while the female red ant is forced to toil on the ground. (Compare first image)

Patriarchal oppressor

Don’t give me any crap about possible convenience for sneaking into burrows. This is hands down one of the most sexist arrangements I have seen evolution come up with and that is saying a lot because I have seen more examples of this than I can count. (Up to 47; I am smarter than your average feminist).

We need to go to Washington and protest, write letters to our representatives and force them to enact legislation that will fix this grave injustice. If those damn biologists can’t figure out a way to give wings back to the females, then we want bureaucrats in every garden cutting off the wings of the males to level the playing field. This oppression can not stand! Social insect justice must be had!

There is a consolation fact worth considering, however. The female cicada hawk larvae likes to eat two or three times the amount of her male counterpart and is fed extra cicadas accordingly. That reminds me of a more familiar species….



(Disclaimer, I know neither cicada hawks nor red velvet ants are social insects, it was a joke.)


Share Button